Enbridge, regulators faulted in Michigan oil spill
LANSING — The National Transportation Safety Board on Tuesday said the massive oil spill that contaminated nearly 40 miles of the Kalamazoo River in Michigan could have been avoided.
The federal agency determined that the rupture of an Enbridge Inc. pipeline, which released more than 800,000 gallons of crude oil into wetlands and waterways in July of 2010, occurred at a point where the company had identified cracks in 2005. Those cracks, left unaddressed, led to the rupture, the agency has determined.
In addition to faulting Enbridge, investigators also cited ineffective regulatory oversight and action by the Pipeline Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), the federal agency within the Department of Transportation that oversees pipeline safety.
“As you heard, this accident was the result of multiple mistakes and missteps made by Enbridge. But, there is also regulatory culpability,” NTSB Chair Deborah Hersman said in her closing statement. “Delegating too much authority to the regulated to assess their own system risks and correct them is tantamount to the fox guarding the henhouse. Regulators need regulations and practices with teeth — and the resources to enable them to take corrective action before a spill. Not just after.”
Investigators shared the determinations of their nearly two-year investigation with the five-member board at a meeting in Washington, D.C. Following the presentation, the board voted unanimously to adopt the investigators’ determination of cause as well as a series of 19 recommendations on how to prevent such accidents in the future.
In a preliminary report, investigators cited “pervasive organizational failures” at Enbridge, including:
Deficient integrity management procedures, which allowed well-documented crack defects in corroded areas to propagate until the pipeline failed.
Inadequate training of control center personnel, which allowed the rupture to remain undetected for 17 hours and through two startups of the pipeline.
Insufficient public awareness and education, which allowed the release to continue for nearly 14 hours after the first notification of an odor to local emergency response agencies.
The report also added that PHMSA’s weak regulation and ineffective oversight contributed to the accident and to the severity of the environmental damage.
Long-neglected cracks at the rupture location were key to the investigators’ findings.
While the cracks were identified in 2005, they were “misclassified” by Enbridge’s integrity management team, said NTSB investigator Matthew Fox. This misclassification “resulted in the defect remaining in the pipeline unabated until the rupture.”
The misclassification was the result of not combining all available information about the feature, Fox said. He said Enbridge had done an ultrasonic study of the wall thickness of the pipeline in 2004, and a crack analysis in 2005. Taken together, the results of these tests should have raised safety concerns. But Enbridge integrity management procedures failed to combine the data from the two tests, Fox told the NTSB.
“Had Enbridge given due consideration to the threat expectations, the crack would have been identified and excavated and the rupture likely avoided,” Fox said.
“The assessment was flawed,” said Matt Nicholson, lead NTSB investigator. “In fact, they used a wall thickness that was 14 percent greater than it actually was.”
During questioning from Hersman, Nicholson further noted that findings from previous ruptures had not been integrated into Enbridge policies and procedures.
“It’s clear to us the lessons are being lost,” Nicholson said.
Operators in the control room of Enbridge’s pipelines in Canada also contributed to the extent of the rupture, according to investigators. They ignored warnings, misread alarms, and attempted to restart the line twice before the rupture was identified. Those two restart attempts resulted in hundreds of thousands of additional gallons of oil being pushed out of the pipeline.
In her opening remarks, Hersman said, “Learning about Enbridge’s poor handling of the rupture, you can’t help but think of the Keystone Kops.”
The NTSB report is likely to lead to new regulatory action by PHMSA in overseeing pipeline operations in the the U.S.
PHMSA proposed the largest regulatory fine in its history against Enbridge earlier this month — $3.7 million. Enbridge has already spent over $800 million on clean up efforts, Hersman said, noting that was five times the amount ever spent on an inland spill clean up. The EPA reports clean up efforts have already removed over 1.1 million gallons of oil from the river.
Beth Wallace, community outreach regional coordinator at the National Wildlife Federation, says the NTSB findings show Enbridge and PHMSA have failed the public.
“Enbridge and PHMSA have failed integrity management programs that need a complete overhaul. This important point emphasizes that they should not be allowed to move forward with any new pipeline projects until they can ensure their current infrastructure is properly managed,” Wallace told The American Independent. “The NTSB investigation proves that Enbridge is not learning from their past mistakes. NWF has not seen proof they have learned from this disaster, either. We would like all their pipelines inspected by a 3rd party, line 6B [the pipeline that ruptured] shut down and their installation of a new line denied until solid evidence is provided that they have adapted all of NTSB’s recommendations, including revised response plans.”
For complete coverage of the spill, visit the archives of The American Independent News Network’s publication, The Michigan Messenger, here.
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Lisa Nettle Modelski I was 16 and lived in Romulus right off I-94 at the time of the crash and my folks still do. When I was little, my dad and I folwoeld fire engines in our subdivision a couple times and watched the brave firefighters put out fires or rescue a cat (yes, they really did that). On that fateful day, my Dad happened to hear something on his scanner in the garage and arrived at the scene before the emergency crews and certainly before the area was closed off. He witnessed first-hand the engine in the median of I-94. How anyone was not killed by THAT still amazes me! The small fires he saw on the embankment on Middlebelt Road near Goddard Road were curious at the time, but made ghastly knowing later that they were belongings and parts of those that perished. My father quickly realized that the best thing he could do was LEAVE and let those trained get in and do their jobs. He also vowed that he will never, ever chase a fire engine siren or [unknowingly] get in the way of emergency personnel again. I was visiting my boyfriend in another city and was very upset when I couldn’t reach anyone at the house. While I am ashamed to admit that a few of our city’s less-than-stellar citizens were caught looting the area, I am proud of the way the city came together in response to this tragedy. My family had participated in more than one mock airplane disaster scenarios while growing up and the lessons learned during these truly assisted with the first-rate disaster response teams. Kindness was shown to the families of the survivors and medical staff flooded the local hospitals in hope that there would be survivors. I recall the airline employees, emergency personnel, but especially the first-responders (some of which I knew) were really having a hard time dealing with this unspeakable tragedy until it was reported that little Cecelia Cichan aka Miracle Baby’ was found alive due in large part by her mother’s protective arms around her. There wasn’t a dry eye in the city! I have always been curious about how you, Cecelia, are faring in life but grateful for the family that took you in and protected you from the public eye. To this day, I cannot drive by that viadock (real grass has long since grown where the spray-painted grass’ was) without thoughts of you and those that perished. Cecelia, even if you had never gone on to do another promising thing in your life (which is definitely NOT the case!), your survival helped to heal a city, a state, an industry if you will, and even a nation. Perhaps THAT was your destiny and everything you’ve done since then has been all YOU. I think that goes for every single one of these sole survivors. Perhaps it’s not a purpose yet unfulfilled,’ but maybe your destinies lied in the fact that you all DID survive and spread HOPE by doing so. God Bless You ALL!
I’ve found an really interesting game named e-Sim. There you can be a soldier, politic, journalist, or businesman. Furthermore, you can play for your own country!!
There is my reflink (sorry about that, but if you use my reflink you’ll get additional 2 gold):
also check out the above web site. Get in touch with Permacultuarist’s in your area or out and get the locals invloved with this clean up project. wish you well ( I have just bust my Achilles tendon so I cannot help) but if you can host (stand) some hippies / permacultrust’s, put a plea out to the various permaculture web sites also to the mycologists and mushroom growers in your area. You can also sell the oyster mushrooms for about 1-2 bucks a pound, you will need to have about 2-3 inches of well cultured/inoculated medium over affected areas so you need a great deal of per inoculated material.PAUL STAMETS’ STATEMENTON MYCOREMEDIATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL SPILLSThe BP oil spill has inflicted enormous harm in the Gulf of Mexico and will continue to do so for months, if not decades, to come. I have many thoughts on this disaster. My first reaction is that when the skin of the Earth is punctured, bad things can happen.Clearly, this disaster could and should have been prevented. Despite all their assurances of safety, BP and/or BP’s subcontractors, failed to ensure the functionality of the emergency equipment on the Deep Horizon rig. The oil industry claims that further regulation will handcuff them, but it is now obvious that more steps need to be taken to prevent a catastrophe like this from ever happening again.However, this spill did happen, and we now must deal with the aftermath. Although estimates have been that BP could be liable for more than 14 billion dollars in clean up damages, very few in the media have mentioned the long-term, generational consequences of this oil spill. There will inevitably be a surge in cancer cases, widespread degradation of wildlife habitat, and an array of diverse and complex strains on local communities, our nation, and the planetary ecosphere as a whole. We all know that the seas are connected, and ultimately our biosphere suffers globally when suffering locally. Now as the hurricane season approaches, we may see catastrophes converge to create what may be the greatest ecological disaster in hundreds of years.While we will need a wide array of efforts to address this complex problem, mycoremediation is a valuable component in our toolset of solutions. Mycoremediation has demonstrated positive results, verified by scientists in many countries. However, there is more oil spilled than there is currently mycelium available. Much more mycelium is needed and, fortunately, we know how to generate it.Here is what we know about mycoremediation, based on tests conducted by myself, my colleagues and other researchers who have published their results. (See attached references.)Oil being absorbed by mushroom myceliumWhat we know:1) [Update] We now know that one of our strains of Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is tolerant to saltwater exposure. The mycelium fully colonizes salt water soaked straw. Our tests with MycoBooms™ (see below) are being conducted in the waters of the Puget Sound, the average salinity of which is approximately 3.3%, only .2% less than the average salinity of the world’s oceans.2) Straw that has been inoculated with Oyster mushroom mycelium floats, making it a potential candidate for use in water-borne mycelial containment/filtration systems.3) More than 120 novel enzymes have been identified from mushroom-forming fungi.4) Various enzymes breakdown a wide assortment of hydrocarbon-based toxic substances.5) My work with Battelle Laboratories, in collaboration with their scientists, resulted in TAH’s (Total Aromatic Hydrocarbons) in diesel contaminated soil to be reduced from 10,000 ppm to < 200 ppm in 16 weeks from a 25% inoculation rate of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelium, allowing the remediated soil to be approved for use as landscaping soil along highways. (Thomas et al., 1999; Thomas, 2000)6) Oil contains a wide variety of toxic substances, many of which are carcinogens.7) Mycelium more readily degrades lower molecular weight hydrocarbons (3,4,5 ring) than heavier weight hydrocarbons. However, the heavier weight hydrocarbons are reduced via mycelial enzymes into lighter weight hydrocarbons, allowing for a staged reduction with subsequent mycelial treatments. Aged mycelium from oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) mixed in with ‘compost’ made from woodchips and yard waste (50:50 by volume) resulted in far better degradation of hydrocarbons than oyster mushroom mycelium or compost alone.9) Oyster mycelium does not degrade keratin-based hair as it produces little or no keratinases, whereas other mold fungi such as Chaetomium species (which include some high temperature-tolerant leaf mold fungi) produce keratinases.10) Worms die when put into contact with high concentrations of hydrocarbon saturated soils, but live after mycelial treatments reduce the toxic substances below the lethal thresholds.11) Spring inoculations work better than fall inoculations as the mycelium has more time to grow-out. Bioregional specificities must be carefully considered.12) Amplifying native mushroom species in the bioregion impacted by toxic spills work better than non-native species.13) More funding is needed to better understand and implement mycoremediation technologies.14) Oil spills will occur in the future—we need to be ready for them!Oyster mushrooms producing on oil contaminated soil (1–2% = 10,000–20,000 ppm).We do not recommend eating food crops from contaminated soils. Photo credit: Susan Thomas.Soil toxicity reduced in 16 weeks to less than ~ 200 ppm, allowing for plants, worms and other speciesto inhabit whereas control piles remained toxic to plants and worms. Photo credit: Susan Thomas.What we don’t know:1) The differential gradients of decomposition of the complex oil constituents from contact with Oyster mushroom mycelium. Different toxic substances degrade at different rates when placed into contact with mycelium.2) The variables that influence the success of mycoremediation, particularly since the targeted toxic substances are often complex mixtures of volatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons.3) How many other species of fungi could be applied for mycoremediation beyond the few that have been tested? Up to now, Oyster mushroom mycelium (Pleurotus ostreatus) has been tested successfully but there are literally thousands of other species yet to be tested for mycoremediation.4) How each fungal species used pre-selects the subsequent biological populations and how these further enable plant communities as habitats recover from toxic waste exposure?5) Whether or not the mushrooms grown on decomposing toxic wastes are safe to eat.6) To what degree of decomposition by mycelium of toxic soils makes the soils safe for food crops.7) How economically practical will it be to remove mushrooms that have hyper-accumulated heavy metals—will this be a viable remediation strategy? Which species are best for hyper accumulating specific metals? How to finance/design composting centers around population centers near pollution threats.9) How to train—on a massive scale—the mycotechnicians needed to implement mycoremediation.10) How to fund ”Myco-U’s”, learning centers with emphasis on implementing myco-solutions to human made and natural catastrophes.11) How extensively and diversely will mycoremediation practices be needed in the future?Pouring crank case oil onto oyster mushroom compost after it has produced several crops of mushroomsNew crop of mushrooms form several weeks later. The spores released by these mushrooms have thepotential—as a epigenetic response—to pre-select new strains more adaptive to this oil-saturated substrate.How can we help?Knowing that the extent of this disaster eclipses our mycological resources should not be a reason to not act.I proposed in 1994 that we have Mycological Response Teams (MRTs) in place to react to catastrophic events, from hurricanes to oil spills. We need to preposition composting and mycoremediation centers adjacent to population centers. We should set MRTs into motion, centralized in communities, which are actively invloved in recycling, composting and permaculture—utilizing debris from natural or man-made calamities to generate enzymes and rebuild healthy local soils.I see the urgent need to set up webinar-like, Internet-based modules of education to disseminate methods for mycoremediation training so people throughout the world can benefit from the knowledge we have gained through the past decade of research. Such hubs of learning could cross-educate others and build a body of knowledge that would be further perfected over time, benefiting from the successes and failures of those in different bioregions. The cumulative knowledge gained from a centralized data hub could emerge as a robust yet flexible platform that could help generations to come. Scientists, policy makers, and citizens would be empowered with practical mycoremediation tools for addressing environmental disasters.There are additional opportunities here. By encouraging strategically placed gourmet mushroom production centers near debris fields from natural and human-made disasters, we can open a pathway for mycoremediation. The ‘aged compost’ that is produced after mushrooms are harvested is rich in enzymes—a value-added by-product and this ‘waste’ product is aptly suited for mycoremediation purposes. What most people do not realize is that most mushroom farms generate this compost by the tons and are eager for it to be used elsewhere.The scope and continuing magnitude of the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill is unprecedented, and calls for unprecedented responses. Time to 'think outside the box'. Here is, perhaps, one path to a solution in response to the BP oil spill disaster. This is experimental and not yet proven, but I think this approach merits serious testing, and may be especially applicable inside of the containment booms, and along marshlands.We are currently testing "MycoBooms™"; straw colonized with oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelium encased in hemp-tubes.Mycoboom™ floating in saltwater in Totten Inlet, southern Puget Sound near Kamilche Point, Washington.Progression of oil absorbtion of Oyster mycelium on straw floating in oily water over a threeday period. Note absorption of oil into above water line and emergence of clear patch of water.Among the potential advantages of the MycoBooms are these:1) Straw colonized with Oyster mushroom mycelium floats, making MycoBooms potentially suitable for both oil absorbtion/remediation and for corraling and containing oil slicks. Moreover, myceliated straw and woodchips could be broadcasted between the shoreline and the containment booms to create a floating debris field to capture and degrade hydrocarbons.2) Mycelium and straw both absorb oil.3) Oyster mushroom mycelium emits enzymes that can break down oil continuously for weeks, if not months, thus starting the decomposition of oil process, reducing the complex hydrocarbons into simpler, more unstable forms.4) Oyster mushroom mycelium supports non-pathogenic bacterial communities as they age, which in turn can break down oil in their own way.5) MycoBooms in hemp socks are fully biodegradable.6) As mycelium outgasses and mushrooms form, fungus gnats and flies are attracted, and fish, bird, bat and insect populations may further benefit from an emerging food resource.Oyster mushroom fruiting from the end of a MycoBoom™On a grand scale, I envision that we, as a people, develop a common myco-ecology of consciousness and address these common goals through the use of mycelium. To do so means we need to spread awareness and information. Please spread the word of mycelium. Educate friends, family and policy makers about mycological solutions. Bring your local leaders up the learning curve on how fungi can decompose toxic substances, rebuild soils and strengthen our food chains. What we lack is the widespread availability of mycologically skilled technicians and educators and a more mycologically informed public. We need a paradigm shift, a multi-generational educational infrastructure, bringing fungal solutions to the forefront of viable options to mitigate disasters. An unfortunate circumstance we face is that the field of mycology is poorly funded in a time of intense need.To support this expanded mycological awareness, I offer my books as resources—especially Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World and Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms. Also, please see my talk on Ted.com—this is an excellent primer for those wanting to understand how mushrooms and fungi can help mitigate disasters and heal ecosystems.Let's become part of the solution. We may not have all the answers now but we can work towards an integrated strategy, flexible in its design, and yet target specific to these types of disasters. We should work in preparation to resolve ecological emergencies before and after they occur. Together, we can protect and heal our communities and ecosystems.For the Earth,THE PROBLEM: OIL IS A COMPLEX MIXTURE OF TOXIC HYDROCARBONSNot many people, even experts, fully grasp the diverse range of toxic substances that are present in oil. Bunker C oil is used as a fuel, particularly in cargo ships, and is especially ‘dirty’. Here is a list of some of the hydrocarbons typically found in Bunker C oil:CONTAMINANTS IN BUNKER C OILcis/trans-DecalinC1-DecalinsC2-DecalinsC3-DecalinsC4-DecalinsBenzothiopheneC1-Benzo(b)thiophenesC2-Benzo(b)thiophenesC3-Benzo(b)thiophenesC4-Benzo(b)thiophenesNaphthaleneC1-NaphthalenesC2-NaphthalenesC3-NaphthalenesC4-NaphthaleneBiphenylDibenzofuranAcenaphthyleneAcenaphtheneFluoreneC1-FluorenesC2-FluorenesC3-FluorenesAnthracenePhenanthreneC1-Phenanthrenes/AnthracenesC2-Phenanthrenes/AnthracenesC3-Phenanthrenes/AnthracenesC4-Phenanthrenes/AnthracenesReteneDibenzothiopheneC1-DibenzothiophenesC2-DibenzothiophenesC3-DibenzothiophenesC4-DibenzothiophenesBenzo(b)fluoreneFluoranthenePyreneC1-Fluoranthenes/PyrenesC2-Fluoranthenes/Pyrenes C3-Fluoranthenes/PyrenesC4-Fluoranthenes/PyrenesNaphthobenzothiophenesC1-NaphthobenzothiophenesC2-NaphthobenzothiophenesC3-NaphthobenzothiophenesC4-NaphthobenzothiophenesBenz[a]anthraceneChrysene/TriphenyleneC1-ChrysenesC2-ChrysenesC3-ChrysenesC4-ChrysenesBenzo[b]fluorantheneBenzo[k]fluorantheneBenzo[a]fluorantheneBenzo[e]pyreneBenzo[a]pyrenePeryleneIndeno[1,2,3-cd]pyreneDibenz[a,h]anthraceneBenzo[g,h,i]peryleneC23 Tricyclic Terpane (T4)C24 Tricyclic Terpane (T5)C25 Tricyclic Terpane (T6)C24 Tetracyclic Terpane (T6a)C26 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T6b)C26 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T6c)C28 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T7)C28 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T8)C29 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T9)C29 Tricyclic Terpane-22R (T10)18a-22,29,30-Trisnorneohopane-TS (T11)C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22S (T11b)C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22R17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)17a/b,21b/a 28,30-Bisnorhopane (T14a)C30 Tricyclic Terpane-22R 17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)17a/b,21b/a 28,30-Bisnorhopane (T14a)17a(H)-22,29,30-Trisnorhopane-TM (T12)17a(H),21b(H)-25-Norhopane (T14b)30-Norhopane (T15)18a(H)-30-Norneohopane-C29Ts (T16)17a(H)-Diahopane (X)30-Normoretane (T17)18a(H)&18b(H)-Oleananes (T18)Hopane (T19)Moretane (T20)30-Homohopane-22S (T21)30-Homohopane-22R (T22)30,31-Bishomohopane-22S (T26)30,31-Bishomohopane-22R (T27)30,31-Trishomohopane-22S (T30)30,31-Trishomohopane-22R (T31)Tetrakishomohopane-22S (T32)Tetrakishomohopane-22R (T33)Pentakishomohopane-22S (T34)Pentakishomohopane-22R (T35)13b(H),17a(H)-20S-Diacholestane (S4)13b(H),17a(H)-20R-Diacholestane (S5)13b,17a-20S-Methyldiacholestane (S8)14a(H),17a(H)-20S-Cholestane (S12)14a(H),17a(H)-20R-Cholestane (S17)13b,17a-20R-Ethyldiacholestane (S18)13a,17b-20S-Ethyldiacholestane (S19)14a,17a-20S-Methylcholestane (S20)14a,17a-20R-Methylcholestane (S24)14a(H),17a(H)-20S-Ethylcholestane (S25)14a(H),17a(H)-20R-Ethylcholestane (S28)14b(H),17b(H)-20R-Cholestane (S14)14b(H),17b(H)-20S-Cholestane (S15)14b,17b-20R-Methylcholestane (S22)14b,17b-20S-Methylcholestane (S23)TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED SOLUTION: MYCOREMEDIATION RESOURCESRecommended texts:Gadd, G. 2001. Fungi in Bioremediation. Cambridge University Press.Singh, H. 2006. Mycoremediation: Fungal Bioremediation. Wiley Interscience.Stamets, P. 2005. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.Recommended articles:S. Thomas, P. Becker, M.R. Pinza , J.Q. Word, 1999. “Mycoremediation of Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants in Soil.” NASA no. 19990031874.S. Thomas, 2000. Personal Communication. "Subsequently to the end of the study, WSDOT retested the soils at its own expense, with a more detailed sampling regime, and found that it did indeed meet the EPA criterion of less than or equal to 200 ppm TPH, which allowed WSDOT to use the soil in highway landscaping." Nov. 30. Email to Paul Stamets.V. Šašek, John A. Glaser, Philippe Baveye, 2000. “The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions.” Nato Science Series IV. Earth and Environmental Sciences vol. 19.M. Bhatt, T. Cajthaml and V. Šašek, 2001. “Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soils.” Folia Microbiologica, Springer Netherlands,Volume 47, Number 3 / June, 2002.Eggen, T., and V. Sasek. 2002. "Use of edible and medicinal oyster mushroom [Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.:Fr.) Kimm.] spent compost in remediation of chemically polluted soils." International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 4: 225–261.T. Cajthaml, M. Bhatt, V. Šašek, and V. Mateju. 2002. "Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by composting: A Case Study." Folia Microbiologica 47(6): 696–700.T. Cajthaml, M. Moder, P. Kacer, V. Šašek, and P. Popp. 2002. "Study of fungal degradation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using gas chromatography with ion trap mass spectrometry detection." Journal of Chromatography A, 974: 213–222.V. Šašek, 2003. “Why mycoremediations have not yet come into practice” The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions, 247-266. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.Giubilei, Maria A; Leonardi, Vanessa; Federici, Ermanno; Covino, Stefano; Šašek, Vaclav; Novotny, Cenek; Federici, Federico; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Petruccioli, Maurizio, 2009, June. “Effect of mobilizing agents on mycoremediation and impact on the indigenous microbiota.” Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, Volume 84, Number 6, June 2009, pp. 836–844(9). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Copyright 2010 by Paul E. Stamets.